Medieval Manuscripts and Modern Evangelicals: ETS 2016 in San Antonio

On Wednesday, 16 November 2016, I had the honor of delivering the presidential address at the Evangelical Theological Society’s annual meeting in San Antonio. The title of the lecture was “Medieval Manuscripts and Modern Evangelicals: Lessons from the Past, Guidance for the Future.” Essentially I argued that we can learn many things from the paratextual and codicological features of medieval manuscripts.


Codex 800 with wrap-around commentary

The lecture will be published in the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society next year. I would like to thank all of you who helped in the preparation of this message–especially CSNTM staff and interns–as well as all who responded afterward. The staff and interns need to be singled out here:

Staff: Rob Marcello and Andrew Bobo were especially helpful, as well as Stratton Ladewig, Christina Nations, Andy Patton, and Mark Arvé. Kudos to you all!

Interns: Laura Peisker, Micah Geyman, Colleen Doran, Joshua Smith, David Lopez, and Teddy Jestakom. You all helped immensely and responded quickly over the last few months to the myriad of sources I needed post haste for the paper. Thank you all!

I am very grateful for the privilege of having served as president of this Society, and I hope that its future will be bright. Sam Storms is now the president of the Society. He was responsible for selecting the plenary speakers on this year’s topic, the Trinity. I know that he will give an outstanding address at next year’s meeting. David Dockery will be the program chairman for the 2017 conference. I’m quite confident that it will be a terrific meeting. And Michael Thigpen and his staff (especially his wife, Bonnie) are to be thanked for their tireless efforts and timely communication. Without Mike as the Executive Director, ETS could hardly function. He is in charge of running the Society and he always seems to think four steps ahead of anyone else as to what is needed to make ETS both stronger and function smoothly.

Daniel B. Wallace
ex-president, Evangelical Theological Society


A Curator’s Guide — An Exploration into the Gospel of John

img_9080I continue our Curator’s series this week by bringing you Rob Bowman’s recommendations for the Gospel of John.


Blomberg, Craig L. The Historical Reliability of John’s Gospel: Issues and Commentary. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2002. Short introduction and commentary by an evangelical, comparing John to the Synoptics and defending its historical credibility.

Edwards, Mark J. John. Blackwell Bible Commentaries. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004. One of the first NT commentaries focusing on “reception criticism,” considering how John impacted the thought, literature, and life of its readers from the Gnostics to Dorothy Sayers, and engaging modern critical views and interpretations in that light.

Keener, Craig S. The Gospel of John: A Commentary. 2 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003. An absolute must: an evangelical historical and exegetical commentary grounded in a mastery of the ancient background sources.

Köstenberger, Andreas J. John. BECNT. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2004. Relatively modest in length yet still detailed exegetical commentary by a leading evangelical Johannine scholar.

Lincoln, Andrew T. The Gospel according to Saint John. Black’s NT Commentary. London: Continuum, 2005; reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2013. One of the few good, recent commentaries reflecting mainline, moderately critical scholarship.

A Curator’s Guide — An Exploration into Luke and Acts (Part 2)

img_9080Here is the second half of the two-part installment of the books Luke and Acts, a list produced by Rob Bowman. Each book will bring insight into the world of Luke, detailing Jesus’ life and ministry, as well as the birth of the first century church.

D. Eschatology in Luke-Acts

Boyd, W. J. P. “Gehenna – According to J. Jeremias.” In Studia Biblica 1978: II. Papers on the Gospels, ed. E. A. Livingstone, 9-12. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1980.

Carroll, J. T. Response to the End of History: Eschatology and Situation in Luke-Acts. SBLDS 92. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992.

Osei-Bonsu, J. “The Intermediate State in Luke-Acts.” IBS 9 (1987) 115-30.

E. Parables in Luke

Bailey, K. E. Poet and Peasant. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.

Bailey, K. E. Through Peasant Eyes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.

Blomberg, Craig L. Interpreting the Parables. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1990.

Forbes, Greg W. The God of Old: The Role of the Lukan Parables in the Purpose of Luke’s Gospel. JSNTSup 198. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000.

Hintzen, J. Verkündigung und Wahrnehmung: Über das Verhältnis von Evangelium und der Leser am Beispiel Lk 16,19-31 im Rahmen des lukanischen Doppelwerkes. BBB 81. Frankfurt: Hain, 1991.

F. Passages in Luke

1. Luke 1:1-4

Alexander, L. “Luke’s Preface in the Context of Greek Preface Writing.” NovT 28 (1986) 48-74.

Dillon, R. J. “Previewing Luke’s Project from His Prologue (Luke 1:1-14).” CBQ 43 (1981) 205-27.

Du Plessis, I. I. “Once More: The Purpose of Luke’s Prologue (Lk i 1-14).” NovT 16 (1974) 259-71.

Moessner, David P., ed. Jesus and the Heritage of Israel: Luke’s Narrative Claim upon Israel’s Legacy. Luke the Interpreter of Israel. Trinity Press International, 2000. Analysis of Luke-Acts focusing on the purpose and genre of the book as seen in Luke 1:1-4.

2. Luke 1:5-2:52
a. General Works

Brown, Raymond E. “The Annunciation to Mary, the Visitation, and the Magnificat (Luke 1:26-56).” Worship 62 (May 1988): 249-59.

Brown, Raymond E. “The Annunciation to Zechariah, the Birth of the Baptist, and the Benedictus (Luke 1:5-25, 57-80).” Worship 62 (November 1988): 482-496.

Brown, Raymond E. “Gospel Infancy Narrative Research from 1976 to 1986: Part II (Luke).” CBQ 48 (1986): 660-80.

Coleridge, Mark. The Birth of the Lukan Narrative: Narrative as Christology in Luke 1-2. JSNTSup 88. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993.

Farris, Stephen C. “On Discerning Semitic Sources in Luke 1-2.” In Gospel Perspectives: Studies of History and Tradition in the Four Gospels, Vol. 2, ed. R. T. France and David Wenham, 201-37. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1981.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. “‘Peace upon Earth among Men of His Good Will’ (Lk 2:14).” In Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament, 101-4. London: Chapman, 1971.

Houghton, Carol Lee. “The Identity of Mary in Luke’s Infancy Gospel: A Biblical Study: Luke 1:26-46, 56.” Ph.D. diss. Pontifica Studiorum Universitas a S. Thoma in Urbe, 1980.

Malick, David E. “A Literary Approach to the Birth Narratives in Luke 1—2.” In Integrity of Heart, Skillfulness of Hands: Biblical and Leadership Studies in Honor of Donald K. Campbell, ed. Charles H. Dyer and Roy B. Zuck, 93-107. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

Martin, James P. “Luke 1:39-47.” Int 36 (1982): 394-99.

Oliver, H. H. “The Lucan Birth Stories and the Purpose of Luke-Acts.” NTS 10 (1964) 203-26.

Ramsay, William M. Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? A Study on the Credibility of St. Luke. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1898.

Turner, Nigel. “The Relation of Luke 1 and 2 to Hebraic Sources and to the Rest of Luke-Acts.” NTS 2 (1955-56) 100-115.

Winter, Paul. “The Cultural Background of the Narrative in Luke I and II.” Jewish Quarterly Review 45 (1954) 159-67, 230-42.

Winter, Paul. “Proto-Source of Luke 1.” NovT 1 (1956) 184-99.

Winter, Paul. “Some Observations on the Language in the Birth and Infancy Stories of the Third Gospel.” NTS 1 (1954) 111-21.

b. The Hymns of Luke 1

Bemile, P. The Magnificat within the Context and Framework of Lukan Theology: An Exegetical Theological Study of Lk 1:46-55. Regensburger Studien zue Theologie 34. Frankfurt am Mein: Lang, 1986.

Buth, R. “Hebrew Poetic Tenses and the Magnificat.” JSNT 21 (1984) 67-83.

Farris, Stephen C. The Hymns of Luke’s Infancy Narrative: Their Origin, Meaning and Significance. JSNTSup 9. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1985.

Grigsby, B. “Compositional Hypotheses for the Lucan ‘Magnificat’—Tensions for the Evangelical.” EvQ 56 (1984) 159-72.

Winter, Paul. “Magnificat and Benedictus—Maccabaean Psalms?” BJRL 37 (1954) 328-47.

c. The Census of Luke 2

Hayles, D. J. “The Roman Census and Jesus’ Birth: Was Luke Correct?” 2 parts. Buried History 9 (1973) 113-32; 10 (1974) 16-31.

Hoehner, Harold W. Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1977.

“Publius Suplicius Quirinius and the Syrian Census,” Restoration Quarterly 34 (1992):193-206.

d.  Jesus’ Childhood

De Jonge, H. J. “Sonship, Wisdom, Infancy: Luke ii.41-51a.” NTS 24 (1977-78) 317-54.

Van Iersel, B. M. F. “The Finding of Jesus in the Temple: Some Observations on the Original Form of Luke ii 41-51a).” NovT 4 (1960) 161-73.

3. Luke 15

Aus, R. D. “Luke 15:11-32 and R. Eliezer Ben Hyrcanus’s Rise to Fame.” JBL 104 (1985) 443-69.

Bailey, K. E. Finding the Lost: Cultural Keys to Luke 15. St. Louis, Mo.: Concordia, 1992.

Batten, A. “Dishonour, Gender and the Parable of the Prodigal Son.” TJT 13 (1997) 187-200.

Kozar, J. V. “Absent Joy: An Investigation of the Narrative Pattern of Repetition and Variation in the Parables of Luke 15.” TJT 8 (1992) 85-94.

Miller, Donald G., trans. Exegesis: Problems of Method and Exercises in Reading (Genesis 22 and Luke 15). By Gerald Antoine, Louis Beirnaert, et. al. Pittsburgh Theological Monograph 22. Pittsburgh: Pickwick Press, 1978. Includes eight readings on Luke 15 (the Prodigal Son).

Tolbert, M. A. “The Prodigal Son: An Essay in Literary Criticism from a Psychoanalytical Perspective.” Semeia 9 (1977) 1-20.

Via, D. O. “The Prodigal Son: A Jungian Reading.” Semeia 9 (1977) 21-43.

4. Luke 16:1-18

Ireland, D. J. Stewardship and the Kingdom of God: An Historical, Exegetical and Contextual Study of the Parable of the Unjust Steward in Luke 16:1-13. NovTSup 70. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992.

5. Luke 16:19-31 (Lazarus and the Rich Man)

Agustin, Alfredo G. The Interpretation of the Concept Hades Described in Luke 16:19-31 — the Rich Man and Lazarus in the Light of the Historical-Grammatical Method. Thesis (Ph. D.)–Adventist International Institute of Advanced Studies, 2008. AU (Ctr. Adv. Res.): BT378.D5 A38 2008

Bauckham, Richard. “The Rich Man and Lazarus: The Parable and the Parallels.” NTS 37 (1991): 225-46.

Bullinger, E. W. The Rich Man and Lazarus: The Intermediate State. Open Bible Trust, 1992.

Cave, C. H. “Lazarus and the Lukan Deuteronomy.” NTS 15 (1969): 319-25.

Derrett, J. D. M. “Fresh Light on St. Luke xvi: II. Dives and Lazarus and the Preceding Sayings.” NTS 7 (1960-1961): 364-80.

Dunkerley, R. “Lazarus.” NTS 5 (1958-1959): 321-27.

Emmrich, Martin. At the Heart of Luke: Wisdom and Reversal of Fortune. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2013. AU: BS2595.52 .E45 2013

Gressman, H. Vom reichen Mann und armen Lazarus: Eine Literargeschichtliche Studie. Berlin: Verlag der königlich Akademie der Wissenschaft, 1918.

Grobel, K. “‘…Whose Name Was Neves.’” NTS 10 (1963-1964): 373-82.

Hauge, Matthew Ryan. The Biblical Tour of Hell. Library of NT Studies 485. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2013. CC/AU: BS680.H43 H38 2013

Hock, R. F. “Lazarus and Micyllus: Greco-Roman Backgrounds to Luke 16:19-31.” JBL 106 (1987): 447-63.

Kreitzer, L. “Luke 16:19-31 and 1 Enoch 22.” ExpTim 103 (1992): 139-42.

Lehtipuu, Outi. The Afterlife Imagery in Luke’s Story of the Rich Man and Lazarus. NovTSup 123. Leiden: Brill, 2007. AU: BS2290 .N6 v. 123

North, Brownlow. The Rich Man and Lazarus: A Practical Exposition of Luke XVI., 19-31. 4th ed. London: Banner of Truth Trust, 1968. PRTS: BT378.D5 N6 1960 (1st ed.); CC: BT378.D6 N6 (1964, 3rd ed.); KC: BT378.D5 N6 1968 (4th ed.)

Standen, A. O. “The Parable of Dives and Lazarus and Enoch 22.” ExpTim 33 (1921-1922): 523.

Szukalski, John A. Tormented in Hades A Socio-Narratological Approach to the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31). Thesis (Ph. D.–Biblical Studies)–Catholic University of America, 2012. No nearby libraries.

Szukalski, John A. Tormented in Hades: The Rich Man and Lazarus. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2013. AU (due 4/12/15): BT378.D5 S98 2013

White, Ellen G. “A Great Gulf Fixed.” In Christ Object Lessons. Reprinted as The Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press, n.d.

6. Luke 20:34-36

Bianchi, Ugo. “The Religio-historical Relevance of Lk. 20:34-36.” In Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic Religions, ed. R. van den Broek, et. al., 31-37. Leiden: Brill, 1981.

Kilgallen, John J. “The Sadducees and the Resurrection from the Dead.” Biblica 67 (1986) 478-95.

Lang, Bernhard. “No Sex in Heaven: The Logic of Procreation, Death, and Eternal Life in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition.” In Mélanges bibliques et orientaux en l’honneur de M. Mathias Delcor, ed. André Caquot, et. al., 237-53. Neukirchen: Neukirchener Verlag, 1985.

7. Luke 22

Kilgallen, John J. “Jesus’ First Trial: Messiah and Son of God (Luke 22,66-71).” Biblica 80 (1999): 401-414. “Luke, according to the Two-Source Theory, read Mark. At the first trial of Jesus, that before the Sanhedrin, Mark has together, “Messiah, Son of God”. Luke has intentionally separated the two titles. The present essay finds the explanation for separating Son of God from Messiah in the Annunciation scene of the Gospel. It is Luke’s intention that the reader understand Son of God in a way that admittedly the Sanhedrin did not. The laws of narratology indicate that Luke 1,35, a part of the Lucan introduction, be used by the reader to interpret Son of God at Luke 22,70.”

8. Luke 23:42-43

Bowman, Robert M., Jr. Understanding Jehovah’s Witnesses: Why They Read the Bible the Way They Do. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1991.

Hong, Joseph. “Understanding and Translating ‘Today’ in Luke 23.43.” Bible Translator 46 (1995) 408-17.

McArthur, H. K. “Paradise.” In Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, 3:655-56. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976.

O’Neill, J. C. “The Six Amen Sayings in Luke.” JTS ns 10 (1959) 1-9.

Snodgrass, Klyne R. “Amen.” In Baker Encyclopedia of the Bible, ed. Walter A. Elwell. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988.

Stafford, Greg. Jehovah’s Witnesses Defended: An Answer to Scholars and Critics. 2d ed. Huntington Beach, CA: Elihu Books, 2000.

Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. “Does the Bible Promise an Earthly Paradise?” Watchtower, Oct. 15, 1983.

__________. “You Will Be With Me in Paradise,” Watchtower, Oct. 15, 1991.

G. Acts

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Acts of the Apostles: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB 32. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1998. The best representative commentary on Acts from a moderate critical perspective, by a renowned Roman Catholic NT scholar.

Keener, Craig S. Acts: An Exegetical Commentary. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2012-2015. All four volumes of this massive commentary are now available; it will almost certainly be the standard reference for many years to come. Evangelical scholarship at its best, drawing on the author’s extensive knowledge of both Jewish and Greco-Roman literature, engaging modern critical scholarship effectively, and demonstrating the historical reliability of Acts at every turn.

Mauck, John W. Paul on Trial: The Book of Acts as a Defense of Christianity. Nashville: Thomas Nelson—Nelson Reference, 2001. Insightful analysis by a lawyer, not a biblical scholar, interpreting Acts as a legal brief in defense of Paul.

Pervo, Richard I. Acts: A Commentary. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2009. The now standard liberal commentary, highly skeptical of the narrative of Acts.

Schnabel, Echhart J. Acts. Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the NT. Clinton E. Arnold, gen. ed. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2012. Excellent recent evangelical commentary. If you need something not as exhaustive as Keener’s, this may be the best one-volume commentary on Acts.

A Curator’s Guide — An Exploration into Luke and Acts (Part 1)


This week, I’ll include the first half of a two-part installment of the books Luke and Acts. Each book will bring insight into the world of Luke, detailing Jesus’ life and ministry, as well as the birth of the first century church. Enjoy!


A. Works on Luke-Acts

Blomberg, Craig L. “The Law in Luke-Acts,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 22 (1984) 53-80. Biblical theological study by a leading NT scholar.

Bovon, Francois. Luke the Theologian: Thirty-Three Years of Research. Trans. Ken McKinney. PTMS 12. Allison Park, PA: Pickwick, 1987.

Cadbury, Henry J. The Making of Luke-Acts. 2d ed. London: SPCK, 1968. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1999.

Dollar, Harold E. A Biblical-Missiological Exploration of the Cross-Cultural Dimensions in Luke-Acts. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press; Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993.

Garrett, Susan R. The Demise of the Devil: Magic and the Demonic in Luke’s Writings. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989.

Green, Joel B., and Michael C. McKeever. Luke-Acts and New Testament Historiography. IBR Bibliographies 8. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994.

Neyrey, Jerome H., ed. The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991.

Sheeley, Steven M. Narrative Asides in Luke-Acts. JSOTSup 72. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1992.

Shepherd, William H. The Narrative Function of the Holy Spirit as a Character in Luke-Acts. SBL Diss. 147. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994.

Sterling, G. L. Historiography and Self-Definition: Josephus, Luke-Acts, and Apologetic Historiography. NovTSup 64. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1992.

Weatherly, Jon A. Jewish Responsibility for the Death of Jesus in Luke-Acts. JSNTSup 016. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994.

B. General Works on Luke

1. Commentaries on Luke

Bock, Darrell L. Luke. IVP New Testament Commentary. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994.

Bock, Darrell L. The NIV Application Commentary: Luke. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996. Evangelical commentary including both exegesis and application sections for each passage.

Evans, Craig A. Luke. NIBC 3. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1990.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. The Gospel according to Luke. 2 Vols. AB 28. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981, 1985.

Gooding, David W. According to Luke: A New Exposition of the Third Gospel. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1987.

Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Gospel of Luke. Sacra Pagina 3. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1991.

Marshall, I. Howard. The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text. New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1978.

Marshall, I. Howard. Luke: Historian and Theologian. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1971.

Nolland, John. Luke. 3 Vols. WBC 35. Dallas: Word, 1989, 1993, 1993.

Stein, Robert H. Luke. New American Commentary 24. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992.

2. Online General Resources on Luke

Carrier, Richard. “Luke and Josephus.” 2000. Online:

Tabor, James D. “Color-Coded Luke.” In The Jewish Roman World of Jesus: Christian Origins and the New Testament.

3. Studies in Luke

Goulder, Michael D. Luke: A New Paradigm. 2 Vols. JSNTSup 20. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1989.

Powell, Mark Allan. What Are They Saying about Luke? New York: Paulist Press, 1990.

Turner, M. M. B. “Jesus and the Spirit in Lucan Perspective,” Tyndale Bulletin 32 (1981):3-42. Argues that Jesus’ relationship with the Spirit in Luke is unique and supports his deity.

Turner, M. M. B. “The Spirit and the Power of Jesus’ Miracles in the Lucan Conception,” Novum Testamentum 33 (1991):124-52.

Turner, M. M. B. “The Spirit of Christ and Christology.” In Christ the Lord: Studies in Christology Presented to Donald Guthrie, ed. H. H. Rowdon, 168-90. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982.

White, R. E. O. Luke’s Case for Christianity. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 1990, c. 1987.

4. Luke and the Old Testament

Blomberg, Craig L. “Midrash, Chiasmus, and the Outline of Luke’s Central Section,” in Gospel Perspectives III: Studies in Midrash and Historiography, ed. R. T. France and David Wenham (Sheffield, England: JSOT Press, 1983), 217-59.

Brodie, T. L. Luke the Literary Interpreter: Luke-Acts as a Systematic Rewriting and Updating of the Elijah and Elisha Narrative in 1 and 2 Kings. Ph.D. diss. Rome: Pontifical University of St. Thomas, 1987.

Evans, Craig A., and J. A. Sanders. Luke and Scripture: The Function of Sacred Tradition in Luke-Acts. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.

Grogan, G. W. “The Light and the Stone: A Christological Study in Luke and Isaiah.” In Christ the Lord: Studies in Christology Presented to Donald Guthrie, ed. H. H. Rowdon, 151-67. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982.

Kimball, Charles A. Jesus’ Exposition of the Old Testament in Luke’s Gospel. JSNTSup 94. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1994.

Larkin, William J. “Luke’s Use of the Old Testament as a Key to His Soteriology.” JETS 20 (1977) 325-35.

Larkin, William J. “The Old Testament Background of Luke 22:43-44.” New Testament Studies 25 (1978-79) 250-54.

Marshall, I. Howard. “Luke and His ‘Gospel.’” in Das Evangelium und die Evangelien, ed. P. Stuhlmacher, WUNT 28 (Tubingen: Mohr, 1983), 289-308. An important article on the purpose of Luke’s writings.

Strauss, Mark L. The Davidic Messiah in Luke-Acts: The Promise and Its Fulfillment in Lukan Christology. JSNTSup 110. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

C. Women in Luke

D’Angelo, M. R. “Women in Luke-Acts: A Redactional View.” JBL 109 (1990) 441-61.

Flanagan, N. M. “The Position of Women in the Writings of St. Luke.” Marianum 40 (1978) 288-304.

Karris, R. J. “Women and Discipleship in Luke.” CBQ 56 (1994) 1-20.

Kopas, J. “Jesus and Women: Luke’s Gospel.” Theology Today 43 (1986) 192-202.

Maly, E. H. “Women and the Gospel of Luke.” Bible Today 10 (1980) 99-104.

Reid, B. E. “Luke: The Gospel for Women?” Currents in Theology and Mission 21 (1994) 405-14.

Seim, T. K. The Double Message: Patterns of Gender in Luke-Acts. SNTW. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1994.

Via, E. J. “Women in the Gospel of Luke.” In Women in the World’s Religions: Past and Present, ed. U. King, 38-55. New York: Paragon, 1987.